الجمعة، 25 مارس، 2011

الفرق بين دعاء المسألة ودعاء العبادة The difference between du’aa’ for asking and du’aa’ for woership


ما الفرق بين دعاء المسألة ودعاء العبادة ؟
الحمد لله
تستعمل كلمة "الدعاء" للدلالة على معنيين اثنين :

كالدعاء بالمغفرة والرحمة ، والهداية والتوفيق ، والفوز بالجنة ، والنجاة من النار، وأن يؤتيه الله حسنة في الدنيا ، وحسنة في الآخرة ... إلخ .

فكل قائم بشيء من هذه العبادات فهو داعٍ لله تعالى .
انظر : "القول المفيد" (1/264) ، "تصحيح الدعاء" (ص 15- 21) .
والغالب أن كلمة (الدعاء) الواردة في آيات القرآن الكريم يراد بها المعنيان معاً ؛ لأنهما متلازمان ، فكل سائل يسأل الله بلسانه فهو عابد له ، فإن الدعاء عبادة ، وكل عابد يصلي لله أو يصوم أو يحج فهو يفعل ذلك يرد من الله تعالى الثواب والفوز بالجنة والنجاة من العقاب .

قال الشيخ عبد الرحمن السعدي رحمه الله :
"كل ما ورد في القرآن من الأمر بالدعاء ، والنهي عن دعاء غير الله ، والثناء على الداعين ، يتناول دعاء المسألة ، ودعاء العبادة" انتهى .
"القواعد الحسان" (رقم/51) .
وقد يكون أحد نوعي الدعاء أظهر قصدا من النوع الآخر في بعض الآيات .
قال شيخ الإسلام ابن تيمية رحمه الله - في قول الله عزّ وجلّ : (ادْعُوا رَبَّكُمْ تَضَرُّعًا وَخُفْيَةً إِنَّهُ لاَ يُحِبُّ الْمُعْتَدِينَ * وَلاَ تُفْسِدُوا فِي الأَرْضِ بَعْدَ إِصْلاَحِهَا وَادْعُوهُ خَوْفًا وَطَمَعًا إِنَّ رَحْمَةَ اللَّهِ قَرِيبٌ مِنَ الْمُحْسِنِينَ) الأعراف/55-56- :
" هاتان الآيتان مشتملتان على آداب نوعَيِ الدُّعاء : دعاء العبادة ، ودعاء المسألة :
فإنّ الدُّعاء في القرآن يراد به هذا تارةً وهذا تارةً ، ويراد به مجموعهما ؛ وهما متلازمان ؛ فإنّ دعاء المسألة : هو طلب ما ينفع الدّاعي ، وطلب كشف ما يضره ودفعِه ،... فهو يدعو للنفع والضرِّ دعاءَ المسألة ، ويدعو خوفاً ورجاءً دعاءَ العبادة ؛ فعُلم أنَّ النَّوعين متلازمان ؛ فكل دعاءِ عبادةٍ مستلزمٌ لدعاءِ المسألة ، وكل دعاءِ مسألةٍ متضمنٌ لدعاءِ العبادة .
وعلى هذا فقوله : (وَإِذَا سَأَلَكَ عِبَادِي عَنِّي فإنّي قَرِيبٌ أُجِيبُ دَعْوَةَ الدّاعِ إِذَا دَعَانِ) يتناول نوعي الدُّعاء ... وبكل منهما فُسِّرت الآية . قيل : أُعطيه إذا سألني ، وقيل : أُثيبه إذا عبدني ، والقولان متلازمان .
وليس هذا من استعمال اللفظ المشترك في معنييه كليهما ، أو استعمال اللفظ في حقيقته ومجازه ؛ بل هذا استعماله في حقيقته المتضمنة للأمرين جميعاً .
فتأمَّله ؛ فإنّه موضوعٌ عظيمُ النّفع ، وقلَّ ما يُفطن له ، وأكثر آيات القرآن دالَّةٌ على معنيين فصاعداً ، فهي من هذا القبيل .
ومن ذلك قوله تعالى : (قُلْ مَا يَعْبَأُ بِكُمْ رَبِّي لَوْلاَ دُعَاؤُكُمْ) الفرقان/77 أي : دعاؤكم إياه ، وقيل : دعاؤه إياكم إلى عبادته ، فيكون المصدر مضافاً إلى المفعول ، ومحل الأول مضافاً إلى الفاعل ، وهو الأرجح من القولين .
وعلى هذا ؛ فالمراد به نوعا الدُّعاء ؛ وهو في دعاء العبادة أَظهر ؛ أَي : ما يعبأُ بكم لولا أَنّكم تَرْجُونَه ، وعبادته تستلزم مسأَلَته ؛ فالنّوعان داخلان فيه .
ومن ذلك قوله تعالى : (وَقَالَ رَبُّكُمُ ادْعُونِي أَسْتَجِبْ لَكُمْ) غافر/60 ، فالدُّعاء يتضمن النّوعين ، وهو في دعاء العبادة أظهر ؛ ولهذا أعقبه (إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ عَنْ عِبَادَتِي) الآية ، ويفسَّر الدُّعاء في الآية بهذا وهذا .
وروى الترمذي عن النّعمان بن بشير رضي الله عنه قال : سمعتُ رسولَ الله صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم يقول على المنبر : إنَّ الدُّعاء هو العبادة ، ثمّ قرأ قوله تعالى : (وَقَالَ رَبُّكُمُ ادْعُونِي أَسْتَجِبْ لَكُمْ) الآية ، قال الترمذي : حديث حسنٌ صحيحٌ .
وأمَّا قوله تعالى : (إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ لَنْ يَخْلُقُوا ذُبَابًا وَلَوِ اجْتَمَعُوا لَهُ) الآية ، الحج/73 ، وقوله : (إِنْ يَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِهِ إِلاَّ إِنَاثًا) الآية ، النّساء/117 ، وقوله : (وَضَلَّ عَنْهُمْ مَا كَانُوا يَدْعُونَ مِنْ قَبْلُ) الآية ، فصلت/48 ، وكل موضعٍ ذكر فيه دعاءُ المشركين لأوثانهم ، فالمراد به دعاءُ العبادة المتضمن دعاءَ المسألة ، فهو في دعاء العبادة أظهر ...
وقوله تعالى : (فَادْعُوا اللَّهَ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدّينَ) غافر/65 ، هو دعاء العبادة ، والمعنى : اعبدوه وحده وأخلصوا عبادته لا تعبدوا معه غيره .
وأمَّا قول إبراهيم عليه السّلام : (إِنَّ رَبِّي لَسَمِيعُ الدُّعاء) إبراهيم/39 ، فالمراد بالسّمع ههنا ااء الطّلب ، وسَمْعُ الربِّ تعالى له إثابته على الثناء ، وإجابته للطلب ؛ فهو سميعُ هذا وهذا .
وأمَّا قولُ زكريا عليه السّلام : ( ولم أَكُنْ بِدُعَائِكَ رَبِّ شَقِيًّا ) مريم/4 ، فقد قيل : إنَّه دعاءُ لسّمع الخاص ، وهو سمعُ الإجابة والقبول ، لا السّمع العام ؛ لأنَّه سميعٌ لكل مسموعٍ ، وإذا كان كذلك ؛ فالدُّعاء : دعاء العبادة ودعالمسألة ، والمعنى : أنَّك عودتَّني إجابتَك ، ولم تشقني بالرد والحرمان ، فهو توسلٌ إليه سبحانه وتعالى بما سلف من إجابته وإحسانه ، وهذا ظاهرٌ ههنا .
وأمَّا قوله تعالى : (قُلِ ادْعُوا اللَّهَ أَوِ ادْعُوا الرَّحْمَنَ) الآية ، الإسراء/110 ؛ فهذا الدُّعاء : المشهور أنَّه دعاءُ المسألة ، وهو سببُ النّزول ، قالوا : كان النّبيُّ صلَّى الله عليه وسلَّم يدعو ربه فيقول مرَّةً : يا الله . ومرَّةً : يا رحمن . فظنَّ المشركون أنَّه يدعو إلهين ، فأنزل اللهُ هذه الآيةَ .

وأمَّا قوله : ( إِنَّا كُنَّا مِنْ قَبْلُ نَدْعُوهُ إِنَّهُ هُوَ الْبَرُّ الرَّحِيمُ ) الطّور/28 ، فهذا دعاءُ العبادة المتضمن للسؤال رغبةً ورهبةً ، والمعنى: إنَّا كنَّا نخلص له العبادة ؛ وبهذا استحقُّوا أنْ وقاهم الله عذابَ السّموم ، لا بمجرد السّؤال المشترك بين النّاجي وغيره : فإنّه سبحانه يسأله من في السّموات والأرض ، (لَنْ نَدْعُوَ مِنْ دُونِهِ إِلَهًا) الكهف/14 ، أي : لن نعبد غيره ، وكذا قوله : (أَتَدْعُونَ بَعْلاً) الآية ، الصّافات/125 .
وأمَّا قوله : (وَقِيلَ ادْعُوا شُرَكَاءَكُمْ فَدَعَوْهُمْ) القصص/64 ، فهذا دعاءُ المسألة ، يبكتهم الله ويخزيهم يوم القيامة بآرائهم ؛ أنَّ شركاءَهم لا يستجيبون لهم دعوتَهم ، وليس المراد : اعبدوهم ، وهو نظير قوله تعالى : (وَيَوْمَ يَقولُ نَادُوا شُرَكائِي الَّذِينَ زَعَمْتُمْ فَدَعَوْهُمْ فلمْ يَسْتَجِيبُوا لَهُمْ) الكهف/52 " انتهى .

"مجموع فتاوى ابن تيمية" (15/10-14) باختصار . 

وانظر أمثلة أخرى في "بدائع الفوائد" لابن القيم (3/513-527) .

والله أعلم .

 
1- دعاء المسألة ، وهو طلب ما ينفع ، أو طلب دفع ما يضر ، بأن يسأل الله تعالى ما ينفعه في 

الدنيا والآخرة ، ودفع ما يضره في الدنيا والآخرة .

2- دعاء العبادة ، والمراد به أن يكون الإنسان عابداً لله تعالى ، بأي نوع من أنواع العبادات ، القلبية أو البدنية أو المالية ، 

كالخوف من الله ومحبة رجائه والتوكل عليه ، والصلاة والصيام والحج ، وقراءة القرآن والتسبيح والذكر ، 

والزكاة والصدقة والجهاد في سبيل الله ، والدعوة إلى الله ، والأمر بالمعروف والنهي عن المنكر ..... إلخ .

الإسلام سؤال وجواب


هنا 



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The difference between du’aa’ for asking and du’aa’ for woership
 
 
What is the difference between du’aa’ for asking and du’aa’ for worship?.

Praise be to Allaah. 
 
We use the word du’aa’ (invocation) to refer to two things: 
1-
Du’aa’ for asking, which means seeking that which will benefit, or asking to ward off that which will cause harm, by asking Allaah for that which will benefit in this world and in the Hereafter, and to ward off that which will cause harm in this world and in the Hereafter, 
Such as du’aa’ for forgiveness, mercy, guidance, help, to attain Paradise, to be saved from Hell, for Allaah to grant good things in this world and in the Hereafter and so on. 
2-
Du’aa’ for worship, which means that the person is worshipping Allaah by any of the types of worship, in the heart or physically or financially, such as fearing Allaah, loving Him, hoping for His mercy, putting one’s trust in Him, praying, fasting, doing Hajj, reading Qur’aan, reciting tasbeeh and dhikr, giving zakaah and charity, jihad for the sake of Allaah, calling people to Allaah, enjoining what is good and forbidding what is evil, and so on. 
Everyone who does any of these acts of worship is calling upon Allaah. 

See: al-Qawl al-Mufeed (1/264) and Tasheeh al-Du’aa’ (p. 15-21). 
Usually when the word du’aa’ appears in verses of the Qur’aan, it refers to both meanings, because they are interconnected. So everyone who asks of Allaah verbally is worshipping Him, 
because du’aa’ is worship, and every worshipper who prays to Allaah, fasts or does Hajj is doing that hoping for reward from Allaah and to attain Paradise and to be saved from punishment. 
Shaykh ‘Abd al-Rahmaan al-Sa’di (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: 

Everything in the Qur’aan that enjoins du’aa’ and forbids du’aa’ to or calling upon anyone other than Allaah, and praises those who say du’aa’ or call upon Him, includes the du’aa’ of asking and the du’aa’ of worship. End quote. 
Al-Qawaa’id al-Hisaan (no. 51). 
One of the two types of du’aa’ may be more apparent than the other in some verses. 

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said concerning the verse (interpretation of the meaning): “Invoke your Lord with humility and in secret. He likes not the aggressors. 56. And do not do mischief on the earth, after it has been set in order, and invoke Him with fear and hope. Surely, Allaah’s Mercy is (ever) near unto the good‑doers” [al-A’raaf 7:55-56]:  

These two verses include the etiquette of two types of du’aa’: the du’aa’ of worship and the du’aa’ of asking. Du’aa’ in the Qur’aan may refer to either of these types, or it may refer to both, because they are interconnected. Du’aa’ of asking means seeking that which will benefit the supplicant, and asking to be spared that which will harm him, and for it to be warded off. So he asks for benefit and for harm to be warded off, and that is du’aa’ of asking. And the du’aa’ that is offered with hope and fear is the du’aa’ of worship. Therefore it is known that both types are interconnected. Every du’aa’ of worship implies du’aa’ of asking, and every du’aa’ of asking implies du’aa’ of worship. 

Based on this, the words (interpretation of the meaning): “And when My slaves ask you (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم) concerning Me, then (answer them), I am indeed near (to them by My Knowledge). I respond to the invocations of the supplicant when he calls on Me (without any mediator or intercessor)” [al-Baqarah 2:186] include both types of du’aa’, and it is in terms of both that the verse is to be understood. It was said: I will give to him when he asks of Me, and it was said: I will reward him if he worships Me. Both are interconnected. 
This does not come under the heading of using a common word in both of its meanings, or of using a word in a real and metaphorical sense, rather it is using it in its real sense which includes both things. 

Think about it, because it is a matter that is of great benefit, but it is rarely paid attention to. Most verses of the Qur’aan point to both meanings and more, and it is of this type. 
For example, Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):  
“Say (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم to the disbelievers): My Lord pays attention to you only because of your invocation to Him”
[al-Furqaan 25:77]. 

i.e., because of your du’aa’ to Him. And it was said: (it means) because of His call to you to worship Him.  
Based on that, what is meant is both types of du’aa’, of which is the du’aa’ of worship is more apparent, i.e., He would not have paid attention to you were it not that you put your hope in Him. Worship of Him implies asking of Him, so both types are included. 

And Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):  
“And your Lord said: Invoke Me [i.e. believe in My Oneness (Islamic Monotheism) and ask Me for anything] I will respond to your (invocation)”
[Ghaafir 40:60]. 

The word du’aa’ here includes both types, although du’aa’ of worship is more apparent, hence it is followed by the words (interpretation of the meaning): “Verily, those who scorn My worship [i.e. do not invoke Me, and do not believe in My Oneness, (Islamic Monotheism)] they will surely enter Hell in humiliation!”. So the word du’aa’ in this verse may be interpreted in both senses. 

Al-Tirmidhi narrated that al-Nu’maan ibn Basheer (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: I heard the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) say on the minbar: “Du’aa’ is worship.” Then he recited the verse (interpretation of the meaning): “And your Lord said: Invoke Me [i.e. believe in My Oneness (Islamic Monotheism) and ask Me for anything] I will respond to your (invocation)…”. Al-Tirmidhi said: a saheeh hasan hadeeth. 

With regard to the verses (interpretation of the meaning):  
“Verily, those on whom you call besides Allaah, cannot create (even) a fly, even though they combine together for the purpose…”
[al-Hajj 22:73] 

“They (all those who worship others than Allaah) invoke nothing but female deities besides Him (Allaah) …”
[al-Nisa’ 4:117] 

“And those whom they used to invoke before (in this world) shall disappear from them…”
[Fussilat 41:48] 
everything that is mentioned in them is the du’aa’ or invocation of the mushrikeen to their idols. What is meant is the du’aa’ of worship which includes the du’aa’ of asking, although the meaning of du’aa’ of worship is more apparent. 

The words (interpretation of the meaning): “so invoke Him making your worship pure for Him Alone (by worshipping Him Alone, and none else” [Ghaafir 40:65] refer to the du’aa’ of worship. What is meant is: Worship Him alone and make your worship sincerely for Him alone, and do not worship anyone else along with Him. 

With regard to the words of Ibraaheem (peace be upon him) in the verse (interpretation of the meaning): “ ‘Verily, my Lord is indeed the All‑Hearer of invocations’” [Ibraaheem 14:39], what is meant by hearing here is hearing in a specific sense, which is the hearing of response and acceptance, not hearing in the general sense, because Allaah hears all that can be heard. As that is the case, du’aa’ here means the du’aa’ of worship and the du’aa’ of requesting, and the Lord’s hearing of it means that He rewards the praise and answers the request, so He hears both. 
With regard to the words of Zakariya (peace be upon him) in the verse (interpretation of the meaning):  “ ‘and I have never been unblest in my invocation to You, O my Lord’” [Maryam 19:4], it was said that what is meant is the du’aa’ of asking, meaning: You always answered me and never  rejected me or deprived me. So he is seeking to draw closer to Allaah, may He be glorified and exalted, by means of His previous answers and kindness. This is clear in this case.  

With regard to the words of Allaah (interpretation of the meaning): 

“Say (O Muhammad): Invoke Allaah or invoke the Most Gracious (Allaah)…” [al-Isra’ 17:110], 
The well known view is that this is the du’aa’ of asking, and this is the reason for revelation. They said: The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to call upon his Lord, sometimes saying Ya Allaah and sometimes saying Ya Rahmaan, so the mushrikeen thought that he was calling upon two gods, so Allaah revealed this verse. 
With regard to the verse (interpretation of the meaning): “Verily, We used to invoke Him (Alone and none else) before. Verily, He is Al‑Barr (the Most Subtle, Kind, Courteous, and Generous), the Most Merciful” [al-Toor 52:28], this is the du’aa’ of worship which includes asking with hope and fear. What it means is: we used to devote our worship sincerely to Him alone, and thus they deserved that Allaah should save them from the punishment of Hell, not just because of asking, which is something that is shared in common between those who are saved and those who are not, because everyone who is in heaven and on earth asks for that. “never shall we call upon any ilaah (god) other than Him” [al-Kahf 18:14] i.e., we will never worship anyone other than Him. Similarly Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “Will you call upon Ba‘l (a well-known idol of his nation whom they used to worship) and forsake the Best of creators?” [al-Saffaat 37:125].  
With regard to the words (interpretation of the meaning): “And it will be said (to them): ‘Call upon your (so‑called) partners (of Allaah)’, and they will call upon them…” [al-Qasas 28:64], this is du’aa’ of asking. Allaah will rebuke and humiliate them on the Day of Resurrection, by showing them that their partners (whom they ascribed to Allaah) will not answer their du’aa’s or supplications. But it does not mean worship them. It is similar to the verse in which Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “And (remember) the Day He will say: ‘Call those (so‑called) partners of Mine whom you pretended.’ Then they will cry unto them, but they will not answer them” [al-Kahf 18:52]. End quote.  
Majmoo’ Fataawa Ibn Taymiyah (15/10-14). 
See other examples in Badaa’i’ al-Fawaa’id by Ibn al-Qayyim (3/513-527). 

And Allaah knows best.

Islam Q&A