السبت، 5 مارس، 2011

تجهيز الميت الفقير من الزكاة

تجهيز الميت الفقير من الزكاة
 
السؤال : هناك بعض المؤسسات الخيرية تقوم بشراء الأكفان من المال الخاص بالزكاة ، فمن كان فقيراً ليس عنده مال لشراء الكفن ومؤن التجهيز...تقوم الجمعية بأمور دفنه من مال الزكاة فهل يشرع ذلك ؟
الجواب :
الحمد لله 

سبق في جواب سؤال رقم (44039) أن الميت إذا كان له مال ، فنفقات تجهيزه تكون من ماله ، وإذا لم يكن له مال وجب تكفينه على من تلزمه نفقته ( كأبيه وابنه والزوج ) , فإن لم يكن وجبت من بيت المال , فإن لم يكن وجب ذلك على عامة المسلمين .

وعليه فلا يجوز صرف زكاة الأموال في تجهيز الموتى ولو كانوا فقراء .

قال "البهوتي" رحمه الله في "كشاف القناع" (2/271) : "أهل الزكاة ... ثمانية أصناف , لا يجوز صرفها إلى غيرهم ، كبناء المساجد..., وتكفين الموتى ,  ووقف المصاحف وغير ذلك من جهات الخير..." انتهى .

وقال ابن قدامة رحمه الله : "ولا يجوز صرفها إلى غيرهم من بناء مساجد أو إصلاح طريق أو كفن ميت ؛ لأن الله تعالي خصهم بها بقوله : (إنما) وهي للحصر تثبت المذكور وتنفي ما عداه " انتهى من "الكافي" .
 
وقال الشيخ ابن عثيمين رحمه الله : "وهذا صحيح ، هذا استدلال جيد ، ولا حجة لمن قال إن قوله : (وَفِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ) يشمل كل أعمال الخير ، لأن "سبيل الله" هو الطريق الموصل إليه ، نقول : هذا خطأ ، أولاً : لأن الله ذكرها في باطن أشياء معينة ، يعني لو كانت في الآخر لقلنا : تعميم بعد تخصيص ، أو في الأول لقلنا : تخصيص بعد تعميم ، أما أن يذكرها في جوف المستحقين ويقول : "وَفِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ" ، فهذا يدل على أن المراد "وَفِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ" شيء خاص ، وهو الجهاد في سبيل الله ، وأيضاً لو قلنا : "وَفِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ"عام لكل خير لكان ذكر الحصر لغواً لا فائدة منه فالصواب ما ذكره المؤلف رحمه الله" انتهى من "شرح الكافي" .
 
والله أعلم


الإسلام سؤال وجواب

هنا

_________________



Preparing a deceased poor person for burial from zakaah funds
 
There are some charitable foundations which buy shrouds with money that was paid as zakaah, then if a poor person does not have any money with which to buy a shroud and pay for the expenses of burial preparation, this charity pays the burial expenses from the zakaah funds. Is that acceptable according to sharee ‘ah?.
Praise be to Allaah. 
 
In the answer to question no. 44039, we explained that if the deceased had some wealth, then the expenses of preparing him for burial are to be paid from his wealth. If he did not have any wealth, then his shrouding should be paid for by the one who is obliged to spend on him (such as his father or son, or a spouse). 

If that is not possible, then it should be paid for from the bayt al-maal (treasury). If that is not possible, then it must be paid for by the Muslims as a whole. 

Based on that, it is not permissible to divert zakaah funds to pay for burial preparations for the deceased, even if they were poor. 

Al-Bahooti (may Allah have mercy on him) said in Kashshaaf al-Qinaa‘ (2/271): Those who are entitled to zakaah… are eight categories and it is not permissible to give it to other causes, such as building mosques… shrouding the dead, donating Mushafs as a waqf or other charitable causes. End quote.

Ibn Qudaamah (may Allah have mercy on him) said: It is not permissible to spend it on other causes such as building mosques, repairing roads or shrouding the dead, because Allah, may He be exalted, said [in the verse on zakaah, al-Tawbah 9:60] “innama (‘only’)”, which means it is limited only to what is mentioned, and everything else is not allowed.
End quote from al-Kaafi. 

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him) said: This is correct, and this is a good argument, and there is no evidence for those who say that the phrase “and for Allaah’s Cause” [al-Tawbah 9:60] includes all good actions because sabeel-Allah (Allah’s cause or the way of Allah) is the way that leads to attaining His pleasure. We say: This is mistaken, firstly because Allah mentioned that in the midst of other specific things; i.e., if He had mentioned it at the end of this list, we could have said that this is a generalization after mentioning specific things, or if He had mentioned it at the beginning of this list, we could have said that this is specifying after mentioning something general. But because He mentions it in the midst of those who are entitled to zakaah, and says “and for Allaah’s Cause”, this indicates that what is meant by “and for Allaah’s Cause” is something specific, which is jihad for the sake of Allah. Moreover, if we say that “and for Allaah’s Cause” is general in meaning and includes all kinds of good deeds, then saying “only” is redundant and makes no sense. The correct view is what the author (may Allah have mercy on him) mentioned.
End quote from Sharh al-Kaafi. 

And Allah knows best.

Islam Q&A