الأربعاء، 19 يناير، 2011

معنى الصلاة والسلام على رسول الله صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ



معنى الصلاة والسلام على رسول الله صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ

ما معنى الصلاة والسلام على رسول الله صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ؟.  


الحمد لله 

أولاً : 

أما " الصلاة على النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم " فمعناها - عند جمهور العلماء - : من الله تعالى : الرحمة ، ومن الملائكة : الاستغفار ، ومن الآدميين : الدعاء ، وذهب آخرون – ومنهم أبو العالية من المتقدمين ، وابن القيم من المتأخرين ، وابن عثيمين من المعاصرين – إلى أن معنى " الصلاة على النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم " هو الثناء عليه في الملأ الأعلى ، ويكون دعاء الملائكة ودعاء المسلمين بالصلاة عليه صلى الله عليه وسلم بأن يثني الله تعالى عليه في الملأ الأعلى ، وقد ألَّف ابن القيم – رحمه الله – كتاباً في هذه المسألة ، سمّاه " جلاء الأفهام في فضل الصلاة والسلام على خير الأنام " وقد توسع في بيان معنى الصلاة على النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ، وأحكامها ، وفوائدها ، فلينظره من أراد التوسع . 

قال الشيخ محمد بن صالح العثيمين رحمه الله : 

" قوله : " صلِّ على محمد " قيل : إنَّ الصَّلاةَ مِن الله : الرحمة ، ومن الملائكة : الاستغفار ، ومن الآدميين : الدُّعاء .
فإذا قيل : صَلَّتْ عليه الملائكة ، يعني : استغفرت له .
وإذا قيل : صَلَّى عليه الخطيبُ ، يعني : دعا له بالصلاة .
وإذا قيل : صَلَّى عليه الله ، يعني : رحمه .
وهذا مشهورٌ بين أهل العلم ، لكن الصحيح خِلاف ذلك ، أن الصَّلاةَ أخصُّ من الرحمة ، ولذا أجمع المسلمون على جواز الدُّعاء بالرحمة لكلِّ مؤمن ، واختلفوا : هل يُصلَّى على غير الأنبياء ؟ ولو كانت الصَّلاةُ بمعنى الرحمة لم يكن بينهما فَرْقٌ ، فكما ندعو لفلان بالرحمة نُصلِّي عليه . 

وأيضاً : فقد قال الله تعالى : ( أُولَئِكَ عَلَيْهِمْ صَلَوَاتٌ مِنْ رَبِّهِمْ وَرَحْمَةٌ وَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْمُهْتَدُونَ ) البقرة157 ، فعطف " الرحمة " على " الصلوات " والعطفُ يقتضي المغايرة فتبيَّن بدلالة الآية الكريمة ، واستعمال العلماء رحمهم الله للصلاة في موضع والرحمة في موضع : أن الصَّلاة ليست هي الرحمة .
وأحسن ما قيل فيها : ما ذكره أبو العالية رحمه الله أنَّ صلاةَ الله على نبيِّه : ثناؤه عليه في الملأ الأعلى .
فمعنى " اللَّهمَّ صَلِّ عليه " أي : أثنِ عليه في الملأ الأعلى ، أي : عند الملائكة المقرَّبين . 

فإذا قال قائل : هذا بعيد مِن اشتقاق اللفظ ؛ لأن الصَّلاة في اللُّغة الدُّعاء وليست الثناء : فالجواب على هذا : أن الصلاة أيضاً من الصِّلَة ، ولا شَكَّ أن الثناء على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في الملأ الأعلى من أعظم الصِّلات ؛ لأن الثناء قد يكون أحياناً عند الإنسان أهمُّ من كُلِّ حال ، فالذِّكرى الحسنة صِلَة عظيمة . 

وعلى هذا فالقول الرَّاجح : أنَّ الصَّلاةَ عليه تعني : الثناء عليه في الملأ الأعلى " انتهى .
" الشرح الممتع " ( 3 / 163 ، 164 ) . 

ثانياً :
وأما معنى " السلام عليه صلى الله عليه وسلم " : فهو الدعاء بسلامة بدنه – في حال حياته - ، وسلامة دينه صلى الله عليه وسلم ، وسلامة بدنه في قبره ، وسلامته يوم القيامة .
قال الشيخ محمد بن صالح العثيمين رحمه الله :
قوله : " السلام عليك " : " السَّلام " قيل : إنَّ المراد بالسَّلامِ : اسمُ الله ؛ لأن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال : " إنَّ اللَّهَ هو السَّلامُ " كما قال الله تعالى في كتابه : ( الملك القدوس السلام ) الحشر/23 ، وبناءً على هذا القول يكون المعنى : أنَّ الله على الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم بالحِفظ والكَلاءة والعناية وغير ذلك ، فكأننا نقول : اللَّهُ عليك ، أي : رقيب حافظ مُعْتَنٍ بك ، وما أشبه ذلك .
وقيل : السلام : اسم مصدر سَلَّمَ بمعنى التَّسليم ، كما قال تعالى : ( يا أيها الذين آمنوا صلوا عليه وسلموا تسليما ) الأحزاب/56 فمعنى التسليم على الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم : أننا ندعو له بالسَّلامة مِن كُلِّ آفة .
إذا قال قائل : قد يكون هذا الدُّعاء في حياته عليه الصَّلاةُ والسَّلامُ واضحاً ، لكن بعد مماته كيف ندعو له بالسَّلامةِ وقد مات صلى الله عليه وسلم ؟
فالجواب : ليس الدُّعاءُ بالسَّلامة مقصوراً في حال الحياة ، فهناك أهوال يوم القيامة ، ولهذا كان دعاء الرُّسل إذا عَبَرَ النَّاسُ على الصِّراط : " اللَّهُمَّ سَلِّمْ سَلِّمْ " ، فلا ينتهي المرءُ مِن المخاوف والآفات بمجرد موته .
إذاً ؛ ندعو للرَّسول صلى الله عليه وسلم بالسَّلامةِ من هول الموقف .
ونقول - أيضاً - : قد يكون بمعنى أعم ، أي : أنَّ السَّلامَ عليه يشمَلُ السَّلامَ على شرعِه وسُنَّتِه ِ، وسلامتها من أن تنالها أيدي العابثين ؛ كما قال العلماءُ في قوله تعالى : ( فردوه إلى الله والرسول ) النساء/59 ، قالوا : إليه في حياته ، وإلى سُنَّتِهِ بعد وفاته .
وقوله : " السلام عليك " هل هو خَبَرٌ أو دعاءٌ ؟ يعني : هل أنت تخبر بأن الرسولَ مُسَلَّمٌ ، أو تدعو بأن الله يُسلِّمُه ؟
الجواب : هو دُعاءٌ تدعو بأنَّ الله يُسلِّمُه ، فهو خَبَرٌ بمعنى الدُّعاء .
ثم هل هذا خطاب للرَّسول عليه الصَّلاةُ والسَّلامُ كخطابِ النَّاسِ بعضهم بعضاً ؟ .
الجواب : لا ، لو كان كذلك لبطلت الصَّلاة به ؛ لأن هذه الصلاة لا يصحُّ فيها شيء من كلام الآدميين ؛ ولأنَّه لو كان كذلك لجَهَرَ به الصَّحابةُ حتى يَسمعَ النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ، ولردَّ عليهم السَّلام كما كان كذلك عند ملاقاتِهم إيَّاه ، ولكن كما قال شيخ الإسلام في كتاب " اقتضاء الصراط المستقيم " : لقوَّة استحضارك للرسول عليه الصَّلاةُ والسَّلام حين السَّلامِ عليه ، كأنه أمامك تخاطبه .
ولهذا كان الصَّحابةُ يقولون : السلام عليك ، وهو لا يسمعهم ، ويقولون : السلام عليك ، وهم في بلد وهو في بلد آخر ، ونحن نقول : السلام عليك ، ونحن في بلد غير بلده ، وفي عصر غير عصره " انتهى .
" الشرح الممتع " ( 3 / 149 ، 150 ) .
والله أعلم .

الإسلام سؤال وجواب



هنا
*.*.*.*.*.*.*.*



The meaning of blessings and salaams upon the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)
What is the meaning of blessings and salaams upon the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)?.



Praise be to Allaah.
“Blessings upon the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)” – according to the majority of scholars, what is meant is mercy from Allaah, prayers for forgiveness offered by the angels, and du’aa’ offered by humans. Others – including Abu’l-Aaliyah among the earlier scholars and Ibn al-Qayyim among the later scholars, and Ibn ‘Uthaymeen among the contemporary scholars – are of the view that the meaning of blessings upon the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) is praise for him among the “higher group” (al-mala’ al-‘a’la, i.e., the angels, cf. al-Saffaat 37:8), and the prayers of the angels and the Muslims for blessings upon him (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) are for him to be praised by Allaah among the “higher group” (the angels). Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him) wrote a book on this topic entitled Jala’ al-Afhaam fi Fadl al-Salaati wa’l-Salaam ‘ala Khayr il-Anaam, in which he discussed at length the meaning of blessings upon the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), the rulings thereon, and its benefits.  
Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: 
The phrase “Bless Muhammad (salli ‘ala Muhammad)” – it was said that blessing from Allaah means mercy, blessings from the angels means prayer for forgiveness, and blessing from humans means du’aa’. 
If it is said: “The angels sent blessings upon him,” it means that they prayed for forgiveness for him.  
If it is said, “The khateeb sent blessings upon him,” it means that he prayed for blessing for him. 
If it is said, “Allaah sent blessings upon him,” it means that He bestowed mercy upon him. 
This is well known among the scholars, but the correct view is something different, because blessing (salaah) is more specific than mercy. Hence the Muslims are unanimously agreed that it is permissible to pray for mercy for every believer, but they differed as to whether we may pray for blessings (using this specific word of salaah or salli ‘ala…) for anyone other than the Prophets. If the word salaah here is taken to mean mercy, then there is no difference between them, and just as we pray for mercy for a person we may send blessings upon them. 
Moreover, Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): 
“They are those on whom are the Salawaat (i.e. who are blessed and will be forgiven) from their Lord, and (they are those who) receive His Mercy, and it is they who are the guided ones”
[al-Baqarah 2:157]. 
The word rahmah (mercy) is mentioned in conjunction with the word salawaat (blessings), which indicates that they are two different things, so the meaning of the verse is clear. The scholars (may Allaah have mercy on them) used the word salaah (blessings) in some places and the word rahmah (mercy) in others, so salaah is the not the same as mercy. The best that cane be said concerning this is what Abu’l-‘Aaliyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: The salaah (blessing) of Allaah upon the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) is His praising him among the “higher group” (the angels). 
So what is meant by Allaahumma salli ‘alayhi (O Allaah send blessings upon him) is: O Allaah, praise him among the higher group, i.e., among the angels who are close to Allaah. 
If someone were to say that this is unlikely from a linguistic point of view, because salaah in Arabic means supplication, not praise, the answer to that is that the word salaah is also connected to the word silah (gift), and there can be no doubt that praise for the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) among the higher group (angels) is one of the greatest gifts, for praise may sometimes be more important to a person than all else. So a good mention is a great gift. 
Based on this, the correct view is that sending blessings (salaah) upon him means praise for him along the higher group (the angels). End quote. 
Al-Sharh al-Mumti’, 3/163, 164  
With regard to the meaning of sending salaams upon him (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), this means praying for the soundness (salaamah) of his body during his lifetime, and the soundness of his religious commitment (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), the soundness of his body in the grave, and his safety and well being on the Day of Resurrection. 
Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: 
The phrase al-salaamu ‘alayka. It was said that the meaning of al-Salaam is one of the names of Allaah, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Allaah is al-Salaam (the One Free from all defects)” and Allaah says in His Book (interpretation of the meaning): “the King, the Holy, the One Free from all defects” [al-Hashr 59:23]. So according to this view, the meaning is: May Allaah protect, keep safe and take care of His Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). It is as if we are saying: Allaah is watching over you, protecting you, helping you, etc.  
And it was said that salaam is a noun that comes from the root sallama (to greet), and means a greeting, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “O you who believe! send your Salaah on (ask Allaah to bless) him (Muhammad), and (you should) greet (salute) him with the Islamic way of greeting (salutation, i.e. As‑Salaamu ‘Alaykum)” [al-Ahzaab 33:56]. The meaning of greeting the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) is to pray for him and ask that he be kept safe from all harm.  
It may be said: This du’aa’ is something obvious during his lifetime, (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), but after his death, how can we pray that he be kept safe and sound when he (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) has died? 
The answer is that prayer for safety and well-being are not limited to the time when someone is alive. There are the terrors of the Day of Resurrection yet to come. Hence the prayer of the Messengers when the people cross al-siraat (a bridge over Hell) will be: “Allaahumma, sallim, sallim (O Allaah, grant safety, grant safety).” A man does not cease to face danger and harm just because he has died. 
So we pray for the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), that he will be kept safe from the terrors of the standing (on the Day of Resurrection). 
We also say that there may be a more general meaning, i.e., that safety and protection for him also includes protection for his sharee’ah and Sunnah, that they may be kept safe from the hands of those who would tamper with them, as the scholars said concerning the verse (interpretation of the meaning): “refer it to Allaah and His Messenger” [al-Nisa’ 4:59] – they said: Refer to him during his lifetime, and to his Sunnah after his death. 
Is the phrase “al-salaamu ‘alayka” a statement or a du’aa’? i.e., are you saying that the Messenger is protected, or are you praying that Allaah will protect him? 
The answer is that it is a du’aa’, asking that Allaah will protect him. So it is a statement that serves as a du’aa’.
 Is addressing the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) like one person addressing another? 
The answer is no. If that were the case, then the prayer would be invalidated thereby, because no ordinary human speech is acceptable during this prayer. If that were the case, the Sahaabah would have said it out loud so that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) would hear them, and he would have returned the greeting, as happened when they met him. But, as Shaykh al-Islam [Ibn Taymiyah] said in his book Iqtida’ al-Siraat al-Mustaqeem: Because you think so much about the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) when you send salaams upon him, it is as if he is in front of you and you are addressing him. 
Hence the Sahaabah used to say “Al-salaamu ‘alayka” although he could not hear them, and they would say “Al-salaamu ‘alayka” when they were in one land and he was in another, and we say “al-salaamu ‘alayka” although we are in lands other than his, and in a time other than his. End quote. 
Al-Sharh al-Mumti’, 3/149, 150 
And Allaah knows best.

Islam Q&A

here